How Much Does It Cost to Climb Kilimanjaro?

best tour operator in tanzania

By William on December 30

Many factors contribute to the increase or decrease of Costs for climbing Mount Kilimanjaro which range from $1,400 (basic) to more than $5,000 (luxury package) and above. Making the best decision becomes a difficult issue when you combine this information with the fact that there are 250 licensed and hundreds of unlicensed operators in the region. In general, a number of factors should be taken into account in order to comprehend how the cost of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro is determined.

Rongai route Kilimanjaro

The Variety of Offers and Cost Information for Climbing Kilimanjaro

A package’s cost often gives you a good idea of what kind of climbing experience you may expect. However, it would be a mistake to base your decision on price alone. In reality, the cost of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro includes a variety of subtle but important elements.

Choosing the absolute cheapest option is never a wise decision because personal safety and a lifetime of memories are considered in the cost. A safe and comfortable Kilimanjaro hike cannot typically be planned for less than $1,400.

However, one does not necessarily need to pay $5,000 or more for a VIP package to get the additional service that might make all the difference in the world.

In this article, we’ll explain how Kilimanjaro climb prices are calculated and explain how to pick the greatest offer for your budget. The example presented is based on a 7-day “Classic” package for 2 or more climbers on the Machame route. This is by far the most popular option because it provides a reasonable level of comfort at a reasonable price instead of a cheap offer or an extravagant affair with hundreds of porters).

Climbing Kilimanjaro: Price Components

The cost of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro is divided into two categories: fixed costs (such as park fees per person) and variable costs (such as transport and equipment), which are shared by every member of the group and, up to a certain point, lower as the number of climbers increases.

The total cost of your trek will include the costs of the following unless you decide to take the risk of choosing the cheapest offer, that would skip most, if not all, of the safety and comfort features that are frequently available:

Kilimanjaro National Park Fees

Every climber of Mount Kilimanjaro is required to pay park fees, which include crew, conservation, and camping fee. Additionally, extra forest fees are applicable on the Lemosho and Rongai routes. It is another essential part of the cost to climb Mount Kilimanjaro.

Depending on the route taken and the number of days, the total park fees will range from US$800 to $1100. (all calculations and prices henceforth are given in USD).

Never believe claims that you may climb Mount Kilimanjaro without paying by bypassing ranger posts. It is simply not possible to make it to Uhuru Peak by avoiding any encounters with park rangers. Every year, dozens of people who do this are caught.

Moreover, it is dangerous. You will lose the chance to get prompt assistance from the rangers if you deviate from established official routes where climbing permits are checked at each ranger post.

Finally, it is illegal. Tanzania considers trespassing on national parks as a serious offence. The best-case scenario entails being arrested and facing massive fines, leaving you without the chance to ever experience Tanzania’s wonders again. The very worst case involves imprisonment.

Estimated Park fees, Machame Route, per climber in a group of two

Fee payable

Climber/day

Climber/trip (7 days)

Conservation fee

70

490

Camping fee

50

350

Rescue fee (paid per trip)

20

20

Crew fee (13 people)

13

91

VAT 18%

171

Overall park fees

120

1122

Kilimanjaro Climbing Crew Wages

The next important cost factor for climbing Kilimanjaro is crew wages. All reputable Tanzanian trekking outfitters have wage systems for their climbing crews, even though the rates paid (and charged to the client) may differ. The average daily wage for a guide is between USD 20 and USD 40, for a cook, it is between USD 10 and USD 15, and for a porter, it is between USD 7 and USD 10. Therefore, the total cost will depend on the number of crew members required to serve the total climbers and provide the level of comfort anticipated during the climb.

On the other hand, many budget operators maintain their rates at low levels by relying on high unemployment rates, which enables them to assemble crews of people prepared to work without a guarantee of payment. The staff will instead rely exclusively on the client’s tips at the end of the trek. These crews often feature a large number of untrained and inexperienced personnel.

 Estimated payroll per climb

Expedition member

Required number

Daily wage (US$)

Total per climb (US$)

Line total salary

Chief guide

1

20

140

175

Assistant guide

1

15

105

105

Cook

1

15

105

105

Porter

8

8

448

Porter-waiter

1

10

70

70

Camp-master

1

12

84

84

Total crew salary

987

   

Total per climber

504

   

Supplies and Logistics

The most of climbs offered by reputable outfitters are packages that include logistics and supplies, including transfers and resupplies, a minimum of three meals and water, as well as numerous other small but essential items which adds to the overall cost of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro.

Approximate costs that are fairly standard for the industry in Tanzania are: $45/climber

Camping Equipment Costs

Equipment including sleeping bags, mess tents, stoves, utensils, tables, and other necessities are typically included in climbing packages. Reliable gear is essential for comfort and safety, thus it should be renewed regularly and cleaned completely after each climb. Operators must consider about how to replace or repair equipment for future treks and pay staff to wash items like sleeping bags and tents properly..

Average amortization costs are: $40/climber

Taxes and Licenses

There are various taxes that apply to all businesses in Tanzania. Furthermore, licensed tour operators pay yearly fees for a number of licenses. This ensures that they are legally permitted to work in Tanzania and are subjected to Tanzanian government control. Selecting licensed tour operators for your trip ensures that they are responsible to the government in the situation that you have any problems, safety issues, or your deposit is lost. Visitors who choose licensed operators consistently receive excellent service, in part as a result of the operator’s investments and adherence to legal requirements.

On the other hand, unlicensed operators are illegally prohibited from providing tourism services, including mountain climbing, and are invisible to the Tanzanian government. In order to increase their profit, an unlicensed operator is likely to take many more seriously risky actions with clients if they are already willing to break the law to provide climbing adventures.

Mountain climbing expeditions must also be licensed specifically in Tanzania. Some tour operators pay an annual fee for this license or use a third party that is legally permitted to organize climbs to contract with them for a Kilimanjaro climb. The disadvantage of this strategy is that it often ends up costing more money because there are two tour operators involved, each of whom is attempting to make a small profit.

Estimated taxes: $60/climber

Climbing Comfort

Long days of trekking and climbing a mountain present physical challenge, even to the most active adventurers. A successful summit depends on taking frequent, comfortable breaks. You are in danger of ruining your entire Kilimanjaro experience even if you are physically fit and haven’t slept well in three nights.

Sleeping bags, a specifically-designed meal plan that includes re-supplies of fresh ingredients, oxygen for emergencies, etc. are all part of a successful climb and raise your Kilimanjaro trek cost. However, consider that this extra comfort could mean all the difference in the success of your climb.

The cost of these additional features averages at: $50/climber

Safety

Although there is no specific training or knowledge required to climb Kilimanjaro, mountaineering is a dangerous activity by itself. High Altitude Pulmonary and Cerebral Edema, or HAPE and HACE, should never be ignored.

Responsible The cost of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro is occasionally somewhat increased by the safety precautions that the Kilimanjaro climbing companies take.

For instance, every four months, we at Williamson Adventures  offer safety training to our tour guides. We require that each of our guides pass the Wilderness First Responder/First Aid test. For the assurance and safety of all of our clients, Williamson Adventures  pays the costs of all of our guide training, ensuring that every guide on Mount Kilimanjaro is certified and updated.

Every adventure that Williamson Adventures  plans are equipped with an oximeter, and emergency oxygen. To protect each climber’s health and safety, particularly as the team ascends to high altitudes, guides perform medical checks on each of the clients daily.

Estimated costs of climbing safety add-ons: $30/climber

Accommodation Before and After a Kilimanjaro Climb

Most hiking packages for Mount Kilimanjaro include accommodation both before and after the climb. A night in a quality 3-star hotel in Moshi will cost $100–120 if booked directly, or $70-80 if it’s part of your climbing package.   As a result, accommodation may initially increase the cost of your Kilimanjaro trip, but ultimately save you more money than if you were to book independently…

Estimated costs of accommodation before and after the climb: $140

Operator’s Commission

Commissions added by Tanzanian tour operators to the Kilimanjaro climb cost generally fall within the 15-30% range.

Estimated average commission of a tour operator – 15-35%

Overall Cost of Kilimanjaro Climb

Service

Total expenses of the expedition (in US$)

Price for one climber (in US$)

All park fees

1772

886

Crew salaries

987

494

Expedition arrangements (meals, water, tents, cutlery, crockery etc.)

90

45

Amortization costs

80

40

Indirect taxes

120

60

Reasonable comfort add-ons

80

40

Necessary safety add-ons

80

40

Accommodation before and after the climb

140

70

Average tour operator commission

15%

15%

Total cost of the trip in us$

3852

1926

As you can see, the price that one can reasonably expect to receive in a quote for Machame 7-day climb is around $1926 per climber in a group of two.

It could be best to enquire about the cost-saving items if you receive a lower quotation. Ask about safety precautions and health-related measures. Never put your safety at risk by making a reservation with another operator if corners are being cut here. On the other hand, if the operator is saving costs by providing a lower level of accommodations before or after the climb, you may find this is a safe and easy way to save on expenses.

If, on the other hand, corners are being cut where safety is concerned in hopes that no emergencies shall arise, then it would be prudent to reconsider booking with such an operator. It is definitely not the best approach to cut your climbing Kilimanjaro cost.

And, of course, if the price quoted is significantly lower than that calculated above, then there is a truly real chance of falling victim to con artists and losing your deposit altogether. 

Pitfalls of Booking Cheap (below $1,400)

Inferior Quality Equipment

Too many tour operators (both licensed and unlicensed) provide poor vehicles and equipment in an attempt to reduce costs. For a mountain climbing expedition, a properly maintained vehicle may not seem important, but getting stuck on the side of the road on the way to the park gate due to a vehicle breakdown is not a pleasant way to begin your climb. . In addition to making your climb difficult, a leaky tent or an unsuitable sleeping bag on cold nights could also make you sick or force you to leave off your climb quickly. Budget tour providers frequently underestimate the importance of maintaining their standards in an effort to reduce the cost of climbing Kilimanjaro.

Unprofessional “part-time” Guides

You depend on the experience and medical training of your guides to ensure your safety while you are climbing.

Their general knowledge about the local nature, customs, and history as well as the team’s spirit could add an extra dimension to the way you will remember this experience for the rest of your life

Your guides’ experience and medical training are what you rely on for your safety during the climb. Their general knowledge about the local nature, customs, and history as well as the team’s spirit could add an extra dimension to the way you will remember this experience for the rest of your life.

A professional climbing crew does impact the cost of your Kilimanjaro climb. Quality climbing outfitters pay for training for their staff and retain quality, experienced crew members through attractive salaries.

Budget operators, on the other hand, often keep their rates low by staffing their crews with inexperienced or less-qualified guides, or part-time employees. Such teams are mostly thrown together on the spur of the moment and interpersonal conflicts often arise amongst members who have never worked together before. Saving on the team proficiency is therefore not a recommended way to cut the overall cost of climbing Kilimanjaro.

Inadequate Safety Policies

Williamson Adventures guides l have seen trips from other operators come to an end without having access to medical supplies or emergency oxygen to manage altitude sickness. In many instances, unsuccessful summit attempts have been caused by inadequate guide experience and a lack of regular monitoring of the client’s physical condition. However, the climb would have likely been successful if the crew had greater foresight to provide the clients with an extra day for acclimatization.

Recent research shows that there are approximately 5–10 deaths on Kilimanjaro climbs annually as a consequence of the low-budget crew’s lack of training and a lack of monitoring and safety gear.

High Risk of Fraud

When making a booking for a cheap Kilimanjaro climb, one must take precautions to avoid falling victim to scams. As the price comes down below the range, the chance of being scammed rises. Some of the scams we hear about include last-minute cancellations without refunds or just stopping communicating and disappearing.

Another common situation is being left stranded on a mountain during the climb with no supplies unless “an immediate additional payment for services not included in the booked package” is made. It is preferred to avoid getting stuck halfway up Mount Kilimanjaro.

Mistreatment of Porters

As was already stated, below a certain cost, it is difficult to provide adequate service during a climb of Mount Kilimanjaro. Unfortunately, one of the ways these low-budget operators continue to succeed in doing so is by underpaying their climbing crews.

In such circumstances, low or no wages are all too typical. These crews members climb in the hopes of receiving tips. However, tips from customers are sometimes not divided equally across all employees.

Since many porters come from disadvantaged backgrounds and frequently receive inadequate payment from their employers, they often cannot afford proper climbing equipment. In order to ensure their safety, socially responsible tour operators will invariably provide them with the equipment necessary for climbing.  This is obviously difficult with a limited budget, which exposes porters to illnesses.

Choosing to book with a reputable and trustworthy climbing outfitter means that all the support staff, whose job it is to help you fulfil your dream of climbing to the roof of Africa, are fully compensated and treated fairly.

Environmental Impact

The magnificent ecosystem of Kilimanjaro is suffering as a consequence of a lack of understanding about environmental impact. Most of this negative impact is typically caused by unlicensed operators, either due to ignorance or an intent to perform trekking in an unprofessional way. We sincerely ask that you book with a licensed tour operator who has conservation policies in place, one who sticks to the “Leave No Trace” principle, appreciates Kilimanjaro’s biodiversity, and never engages in activities that threaten the mountain’s ecosystem.

Finally, we hope that this has painted a clear picture of the factors that contribute to a Kilimanjaro climb’s overall cost. Please feel free to email us at any time if you have any further questions.

SIMILAR POSTS

Here are some other posts you might like

migration safari Safari blog

8 Tips to Witness the Spectacular Great Migration Calving Season

By William 2023Welcome to the spectacular event of the wildebeest calving season, an awe-inspiring spectacle orchestrated by nature herself. Williamson...
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

Best Things to Do in Zanzibar: the Top Zanzibar Island Activities

By William 2023Welcome to Zanzibar, the tropical paradise where history, culture, and natural beauty converge to create an unforgettable experience....
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

Thanda Island

By William 2023Welcome to Thanda Island, a secluded oasis nestled in the glistening waters of the Indian Ocean. If you...
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

Tides in Zanzibar

By William 2023Welcome to the captivating island of Zanzibar, where breathtaking beaches and turquoise waters meet a fascinating natural wonder...
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

Spice Tour in Zanzibar

By William 2023Welcome to the captivating island of Zanzibar, where history, culture, and tantalizing aromas come together on the famous...
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

What Island to Choose for a Beach Vacation in Tanzania?

By William 2023Tanzania's stunning coastline is adorned with a treasure trove of exotic islands, each offering a unique blend of...
Read More
Zanzibar Blog

The Best Time to Visit Tanzania’s Zanzibar Beaches

By William 2023 When is the best time to visit Zanzibar? When is the best time to visit Zanzibar? The...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs

Food on Kilimanjaro Climbing

Food on Kilimanjaro Climbing By William 2023 What do you eat when climbing Kilimanjaro? Nestled in the heart of East...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs

Guides for Choosing the Best Kilimanjaro Climbing Duffle Bag

The Ultimate Guide for Choosing the Best Kilimanjaro Climbing Duffle Bag By William 2023 Duffle Bags for Kilimanjaro Climbing Mount...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs

10 Best Daypacks for Climbing Kilimanjaro

Best Daypacks Recommended for Climbing Kilimanjaro By William 2023 Best Kilimanjaro Hiking Daypacks of 2023 Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest peak...
Read More
Safari blog

Vaccinations and Immunizations Before Your Trip to Tanzania

Essential Vaccinations and Immunizations Before Your Trip to Tanzania By William 2023 Vaccinations and Immunizations Tanzania Planning a trip to...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs Zanzibar Packages

Combining Kilimanjaro Climbing and Zanzibar Packages

Combining Kilimanjaro Climbing and Zanzibar Packages By William 2023 Combining Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar Packages Africa, the land of mesmerizing landscapes,...
Read More
Safari Package Zanzibar Packages

Combining Safari Tours and Zanzibar Packages

Combining Safari Tours and Zanzibar Packages By William 2023 Combining Safari and Zanzibar Packages East Africa is a region known...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs Safari blog

Kilimanjaro Climbing and Safari

Combining Kilimanjaro Climbing and Safari Tours By William 2023 Kilimanjaro and Safari Africa, the mesmerizing continent of vast landscapes, rich...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs

Understanding Altitude on Kilimanjaro

Understanding Altitude on Kilimanjaro: Tips for a Successful Climb By William 2023 Understanding Altitude on Kilimanjaro Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro is...
Read More
Kilimanjaro blogs

Kilimanjaro Climbing Expeditions

Kilimanjaro Climb Expeditions:Challenges, Rewards, and Adventure By William 2023 Kilimanjaro climb: Challenges, Rewards, and Adventure Embarking on a Kilimanjaro climbing...
Read More
Safari blog

Why You Should Choose Tanzania for Your Next Safari Adventure

Why You Should Choose Tanzania for Your Next Safari By William 2023 Why You Should Choose Tanzania for Your Next...
Read More
Safari blog

Best Tanzania Safari Destinations

Best Tanzania Safari Destinations By William 2023 Best Tanzania Safari Destinations Tanzania, known as the crown jewel of African safaris,...
Read More
Safari blog

Tanzania’s Big Five Safari

Tanzania's Big Five Safari By William on December 31 A Journey through Tanzania's Big Five Safari Embarking on a safari...
Read More
Safari blog

A Complete Guide For a Safari in Tanzania

A Complete Guide for a Safari in Tanzania By William 2023 Complete Guide for a Safari in Tanzania Welcome to...
Read More
{"dots":"true","arrows":"true","autoplay":"true","autoplay_interval":3000,"speed":600,"loop":"true","design":"design-2"}
best tour operator in tanzania

About the Author

William is a Tanzanian Safari and Kilimanjaro expert motivated to write about his Safari and Kilimanjaro Trekking experience because of his passion for adventures. Through his stories and articles, William sought to inspire others to experience the thrill of adventure and to appreciate the beauty of  Africa around them.

TESTIMONIALS

What Our Clients Say About Us

LCF20130907
LCF20130907
2023-08-30
7-Day Migration Safari with Williamson: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience! My friend and I had a 7-day migration safari (River Crossing) with Williamson Adventures exceeded our expectations. The captivating sights of wildebeest herds were absolutely breathtaking, a true testament to the wonders of nature. Our knowledgeable guide Raymond made the experience even more remarkable with his deep understanding of the wildlife and their behaviors. The seamless combination of the safari with a day trip to Materuni Waterfall and Coffee Tour added a perfect touch of cultural immersion. The lush greenery and the thundering waterfall were a sight to behold, and the coffee tour was enlightening. Williamson's team orchestrated a flawless journey, ensuring comfort and safety throughout. This safari was a life-changing experience, and I'm incredibly grateful to William and his team for making it so exceptional.
Vi_X
Vi_X
2023-08-30
Unforgettable experience in Tanzania The Ultimate Tanzanian Safari and Cultural Experience! I can't thank Williamson enough for the incredible 7-day migration safari adventure. Witnessing the Great Migration in person was an awe-inspiring spectacle, and Raymond Our Guide added an educational layer that deepened our appreciation. His passion for wildlife is contagious! The highlight was coupling this safari with a day trip to Materuni Waterfall and Coffee Tour. The waterfall's beauty left us speechless, and the coffee tour was a delightful insight into the local culture. The Accommodation during our safari experience was top notch, thank you William for organizing our trip and his team was amazing! I am going to miss Tanzania ❤️ # one of my best trip ever # amazing travel experiences # lots laughs & fun during the trip # unforgettable moments
Edson B
Edson B
2023-07-23
Incredible Safari in Tanzania We did a 5 day Incredible honeymoon safari with Williamson Adventures , we were researching good company for our safari It is our luck to go with them the communication was smooth, we exchanged so many texts until we reached the conclusion . The guide Allan was knowledgeable who knows alot about animals and plants his driving skill was exceptional on the rough road on the way to Serengeti national park , The accommodations were good during our safari we will recommend Williamson Adventures to our family and friends .
Juliane P
Juliane P
2023-07-21
Kilimanjaro 6 days Machame route My dad and I booked the Kilimanjaro 6 days Machame route and since the first contact with William I received all the information and help that we need and our conversation was easy. Our team at the Kilimanjaro hike was really friendly and helpful and our guides were perfect with us! Cannot recommend more I and have no words to thank enough all the team.
Ellen Karin R
Ellen Karin R
2023-03-19
Er du interessert i fugleliv såvel som dyreliv prøver du Williamssons adventures med Ian som guide Er du interessert i fugleliv i tillegg til dyreliv bør du be om å få Ian som guide. Han var kunnskapsrik om både fugler, dyr, fauna og stoppa opp på alle henstillinger og svarte tålmodig på alle spørsmål. Ian var også ein flink sjåfør. Vi var i alle nasjonalparkene, Tarangire, Serengeti, Manyara og Ngorogoro conservation area. Vi var på en fire dagers safari, og lunsjboksene, frokostene og middagene var fantastiske. Likeså med overnattingsstedene. Vi ble tatt vel i mot og tatt vare på. Denne safari er ett minne for livet, og kan anbefales på det sterkeste. I tillegg til kjempemange fugler og dyr fikk vi også sett alle fem store????
Jessica D
Jessica D
2023-02-06
Perfect Kilimanjaro trek, perfect safari, perfect Guide From the first day of emailing Williamson Adventures for a safari and Kilimanjaro quote we were answered in professional way with full of information about the tour in Tanzania.The Director William was helpful and well organized our Kilimanjaro trek and 5 days safari , we started hiking for 6 days machame , the team was very helpful and the porter were strong and friends they really supported us to carry our luggages and guide was very professional especially during the summit day we really appreciate them . After safari we went to safari where we saw many animals excluding rhino because the guide explained that they're now endangered sometimes it's hard to spot them although it was good experience, the food good and accommodation was superb with high comfortability. Thanks Williamson Adventures for making our trip unforgettable
Norbet h
Norbet h
2023-02-02
Kilimanjaro Climb Experience! My husband and I booked 7 days Machame route Kilimanjaro mountain climb with Williamson adventures, we liked the experience from the day we started hiking up to last day at mweka camp. The tour was very organized and the team was extremely friendly . During the summit Day it's was really challenging for me but the guide and porter was really helpful and fun to be around , the food was delicious and plentiful so we really appreciate our chef , the tent were top quality and brand new so we slept in comfortable tents . I really recommend Mr William to arrange your Kilimanjaro mountain trekking if you wish to make it to the top of Kilimanjaro mountain. Best wishes from USA
Christensen H
Christensen H
2023-01-31
Unforgettable safari in Tanzania My Safari experience in Tanzania with Williamson adventures was really good since from the day we emailed them they were very cooperative , we had 8 days safari in Tanzania with them the guide was very detailed about Flora and fauna of Tanzania national park, I really liked Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater the most because of its scenic views and abundant of Animals, we managed to see all the big 5 during safari, the accommodations was nice and clean, we really thanks this company for making our journey in Tanzania unforgettable
Hannah P
Hannah P
2023-01-29
Best Wildlife Safari I did a 7-day safari in Tanzania and it was an unforgettable experience. The tour guide was knowledgeable about the wildlife, making each game drive a learning adventure. From the endless plain Serengeti to the Ngorongoro Crater, every stop was awe-inspiring. The accommodations and food were good and provided the perfect balance of comfort and immersion in nature. I would highly recommend to Williamson to plan your safari in tanzania . Thanks Williamson Adventurures for the nice hospitality
willegamba94
willegamba94
2023-01-25
7 day Kilimanjaro Climb Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro 7 days Lemosho was an experience of a lifetime. The trek to the summit was challenging, but the breathtaking views and sense of accomplishment made it all worth it. The scenery was absolutely stunning, from the lush rainforest at the base to the barren, lunar-like landscape at the summit. The guides were knowledgeable and supportive, and the porters were incredibly helpful in carrying our gear. The final summit push was grueling, but the sunrise from the top was truly unforgettable. Despite the physical demands, I would highly recommend Williamson Adventures for Kilimanjaro climb to anyone looking for a once-in-a-lifetime adventure. The sense of camaraderie among the climbers, the challenge of reaching the summit and the stunning beauty of the mountain made it an experience I will never forget.

WHY CHOOSE US?

We are committed to responsible tourism and strive to minimize the impact of our safaris on the environment and local communities.

We strive to offer competitive pricing without compromising on quality. We ensure our clients receive the best possible prices for our safari experience.

We have a team of highly experienced safari experts who have extensive knowledge of the wildlife and ecosystems of the areas we operate in.